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特朗普宣布美国退出《巴黎协定》

 当地时间6月1日,美国总统特朗普在白宫玫瑰园发表讲话,宣布美国退出巴黎气候协定,并称将重新展开谈判,以达成一个“公平”的协定。特朗普在去年的总统竞选期间就曾放话,称要采取措施帮助美国的石油和煤炭行业。他在讲话中表示,巴黎协定会让美国损失3万亿美元的GDP和650万个工作岗位,而中国和印度等国却能享受到优惠待遇。反对派表示,退出巴黎协定是主动放弃了美国在重要全球挑战领域的领导地位。美国前总统奥巴马也表示,特朗普政府此举是“拒绝了未来”。

 

特朗普宣布美国退出《巴黎协定》

US President Donald Trump announces his decision that the United States will withdraw from the landmark Paris Climate Agreement, in the Rose Garden of the White House in Washington, U.S., June 1. [Photo/Agencies]

 

President Donald Trump has announced that the US is withdrawing from the 2015 Paris climate agreement.
特朗普总统宣布美国要退出2015年达成的巴黎气候协定。

He said moves to negotiate a new "fair" deal that would not disadvantage US businesses and workers would begin.
他表示,下一步会展开谈判,以达成一个全新的、不会让美国企业和工人陷入不利境地的“公平的”协议。

Mr Trump said during last year's presidential election campaign that he would take the step to help his country's oil and coal industries.
在去年的总统竞选中,特朗普就曾经表示,他要采取措施帮助美国的石油和煤炭行业。

Opponents say withdrawing from the accord is an abdication of US leadership on a key global challenge.
反对派表示,退出巴黎协定是主动放弃了美国在重要全球挑战领域的领导地位。

Speaking in the White House Rose Garden, Mr Trump characterized the Paris agreement as a deal that aimed to hobble, disadvantage and impoverish the US.
在白宫玫瑰园的讲话中,特朗普将巴黎协定描述为一个旨在阻碍美国、让美国处于不利境地并陷入贫困的协议。

He claimed the agreement would cost the US $3tn in lost GDP and 6.5 million jobs - while rival economies like China and India were treated more favorably.
他声称,该协定会让美国损失3万亿美元的GDP和650万个工作岗位,而中国和印度等国家却能享受到更多优惠待遇。

"In order to fulfill my solemn duty to protect America and its citizens, the United States will withdraw from the Paris climate accord... but begin negotiations to re-enter either the Paris accord or a really entirely new transaction on terms that are fair to the United States," he said.
他说:“为了履行我保护美国和美国民众的神圣职责,美国将从巴黎气候协定中撤出......不过,我们将展开谈判,以重新加入巴黎协定或者一个全新的、对美国公平的协议。”

"We don't want other leaders and other countries laughing at us any more - and they won't be," he said.
“我不想让其他国家和他们的领导人继续嘲笑我们,他们也不会再嘲笑了。”

"I was elected to represent the citizens of Pittsburgh, not Paris. I promised I would exit or re-negotiate any deal which fails to serve America's interests. Many trade deals will soon be under re-negotiation."
“人们把我选出来是代表匹兹堡民众的,不是代表巴黎民众。我承诺过要退出或者重新商定任何不符合美国利益的协定。过不了多久,很多贸易协定也将重新进行谈判。”

匹兹堡曾是美国著名的钢铁工业城市。讽刺的是,匹兹堡市长比尔•佩杜托(Bill Peduto)随即在推特上回应:“作为匹兹堡的市长我可以向你们保证,我的城市将会为我们的公民、我们的经济和未来继续遵守《巴黎协定》。”

 

 

特朗普宣布美国退出《巴黎协定》

 

各方反应

特朗普讲话之后,法国、德国及意大利的领导人发表了一份联合声明,拒绝就巴黎协定重新进行谈判。加拿大和英国均表示,对特朗普此举“深感失望”。

Former US President Barack Obama, who agreed to the Paris deal, immediately criticized the move, accusing the Trump administration of "rejecting the future".
美国前总统奥巴马立刻对此举表示谴责,他批评特朗普政府“拒绝了未来”。奥巴马在职期间同意签署《巴黎协定》。

Republican congressional leaders and the US coal industry backed the move, with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell supporting Mr Trump "for dealing yet another significant blow to the Obama administration's assault on domestic energy production and jobs".
共和党国会领袖和美国煤炭行业对这一决定表示支持,参议院多数党领袖米奇•麦康奈尔支持特朗普的做法,因为“对奥巴马政府打击本国能源生产和就业的做法给予重击”。

Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer called the decision "one of the worst policy moves made in the 21st Century because of the huge damage to our economy, our environment and our geopolitical standing".
参议院民主党领袖查尔斯•舒默称这一决定是“21世纪做出的最糟糕的决策,因为这一政策会对我国的经济、环境和地缘政治地位造成巨大损害”。

The leaders of France, Germany and Italy issued a joint statement rejecting a renegotiation of the agreement.
法国、德国和意大利的领导人发布联合声明,拒绝就巴黎协定进行重新谈判。

"We deem the momentum generated in Paris in December 2015 irreversible and we firmly believe that the Paris agreement cannot be renegotiated, since it is a vital instrument for our planet, societies and economies," it said.
声明中写道:“我们深以为2015年12月签订的巴黎协定所创造的动能是不可逆转的,鉴于巴黎协定对于我们的地球、社会和经济攸关重大,我们坚信巴黎协定无法重新协商。”

Canada was "deeply disappointed" by President Trump's decision, Environment Minister Catherine McKenna told reporters.
加拿大环境部部长凯瑟琳•麦肯纳告诉记者说,加拿大对特朗普总统的决定 “深感失望”。

This was echoed by UK Prime Minister Theresa May, who expressed her disappointment and told Mr Trump in a phone call that the deal protects the "prosperity and security of future generations".
英国首相特蕾莎•梅也有同感,她表达了自己的失望并在电话中告诉特朗普,巴黎协定保护了“未来几代人的繁荣与安全”。

Leaders of the Nordic nations - Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Iceland - also condemned the move.
北欧国家(包括瑞典、芬兰、丹麦、挪威和冰岛)的领导人也谴责了这一举动。

A United Nations spokeswoman said it was a "major disappointment for global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote global security".
联合国一位发言人表示,这一决定“对全世界减少温室气体排放、促进全球安全的努力来说是一件令人深感失望的事”。

Small island nations whose existence is threatened by rising sea levels were critical of the move. The President of the Marshall Islands, Hilda Heine, said it was "highly concerning for those of us that live on the frontline of climate change".
那些自身生存受到海平面上升威胁的小岛国也批评了特朗普退出巴黎协定的举动。马绍尔群岛总统希尔达•海涅说,“对于我们这些生活在气候变化前线的国家来说,这一举动非常令人担忧”。

《巴黎协定》是什么?

《巴黎协定》(Paris Agreement)是在巴黎出席气候大会的195国谈判代表在2015年12月12日达成的历史上首个关于气候变化的全球性协定。

《巴黎协定》共29条,包括目标、减缓、适应、损失损害、资金、技术、能力建设、透明度、全球盘点等内容。2020年后,各国将以“国家自定贡献”(nationally determined contribution)的方式参与全球应对气候变化行动。

长远目标(the long-term goal):确保全球平均气温较前工业化水平升高控制在2摄氏度之内(make sure the global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels),并为把升温控制在1.5摄氏度之内“付出努力”("pursue efforts" to limit the temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius)。

减排目标(emissions targets):与会各方同意每隔5年重新设定各自的减排目标(set national targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions every five years)。目前已有180多个国家和地区提交了从2020年起始的五年期限内减排目标。

评估目标(reviewing targets): 与会各方今后4年内重新评估各自的减排目标,以便适时做出调整。

透明度(transparency):要求缔约方汇报各自的温室气体排放情况以及减排进展,但赋予发展中国家适度“弹性”(flexibility)。

资金(money): 要求发达国家继续向发展中国家提供资金援助,从而帮助后者减少碳排放以及适应气候变化(wealthy countries should continue to offer financial support to help poor countries reduce their emissions and adapt to climate change)。

损失破坏(loss and damage):该协定 “承认”损失和破坏的内容,主要是针对由气候变化引发的灾难(recognizing "loss and damage" associated with climate-related disasters)。

 

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